Defined as the cutting back of all branches of a tree back to the main stem at a specified height above the ground. The result is a production of a quantity of vigorous shoots usually from close to the cuts, but in some species (e.g. Lime) the shoots may be throughout the length of the trunk. Where pollarding has taken place previously the new pollard should generally be just above the previous pollard points, unless decay is considered so extensive that re-growth shoots would be potentially dangerous.
The removal of weak, diseased and dead branches or limbs throughout the crown of the tree as necessary to prevent them being a nuisance or causing damage if they were to shed.
In order to remove a stump after felling a tree to ground level it is necessary to use a stump grinder as this is the quickest and most effective method to obtain a stump-free finish.
Flexible bracing is a technique used to provide additional support for branch and stem unions showing indicative signs of inherent weakness e.g. tight forks or heavy lateral branches. Braces are designed to assist the tree's mechanics in extreme conditions such as strong winds. Heartwood Tree Surgeons Ltd has a vast experience in cable bracing and uses modern 'cobra' cable bracing products .